5. Operators and Expressions

Operators and expressions are in the core of every programming language. They form the major part of BNF grammar. They also decide how the syntax will look like. You as a programmer will spend considerable time using C operators. C has sevral type of operators like arithmetic operators, relational operators, bitwise operators, unary operators, logical operators to name some of them. Since C was first of very poopular structured general-pupose lnguages therefore many modern language use almost all the operators and supplement with their own. It is needless to say that to become a good programmar you must know all the operators of C and know where to use which one as it may decide performance, readability, simplicity of your code. Whenever you see array and pointer in following sections just plow through them. All will be clear soon.

Before we can proceed to discuss operators and expressions I will explain scope, linkage and storage durations which can be applied to variables. These are given in specification starting in \(\S(\text{iso.6.2.1})\) and ending at \(\S(\text{iso.6.2.4})\).

5.1. Scope of an Identifier

Till now we have seen plain variables and their identifiers. However, there are other identifiers as well which will be discussed later. For now we will consider scope of plain variables. In general there are three kinds of scope. Global scope, function scope and block scope. Variables declared outside any function have global scope and they persist throughout the lifetime of the program. Variables declared inside functions at outermost level have function scope and they live as long as function remains active. A block in C is marked by braces({ and }). Function bodies are also marked by this. Here I mean blocks inside a function. Starting from C99 you can declare variables anywhere inside a function and this block variables which have less lifetime than functions are possible. We will see more of these when we see more code. Note that identifiers can be reused in different scopes. For example, a loop index integer identifier is repeated many times but every time it is a new variable(We will see loops soon). Two identifiers have same scope if and only if their scope terminates at the same point.

5.2. Linkages of an Identifier

There are three different kinds of linkages. External, internal and none. Global variables and functions have external linkage as long as they are not static. If they are static then they have internal linkage. By external linkage we mean that for a program which consists of multiple source code files these functions and variable identifiers can be referred in files other than in which they are declared. When functions and global variables are static i.e. they have internal linkage they cannot be accessed in other source code files.

The following identifiers have no linkage: an identifier declared to be anything other than an variable or a function; an identifier declared to be a function parameter; a block scope identifier for an object declared without the storage-class specifier extern.

5.3. Storage Duration of Objects

There are four storage durations. Static, thread, automatic and allocated. Here, we will not discuss thread which we will talk about later. A static variable which is local to a function of global variable has static duration and it lives in data segment in memory and has static storage duration. A variable local to a function or block which is not dynamically allocated on heap by using either of malloc, calloc or realloc has automatic storage and has function or block has automatic storage and is cleaned up automatically and it lives on stack. Allocated storage duration variables can persist as long as they want after allocation on heap by using one of malloc, calloc and realloc as long as the name is kept in scope and a corresponding free is not called on that name of the variable. Now let us discuss operators and expressions.

Whenever operators and expressions come in picture you may have a set of mixed data then to perform oration data is converted from one type to another. This has an entire section devoted to it in specification at \(\S(\text{iso.6.3})\). There are two types of conversions. Many operators convert their operands silently which is called “implicit conversion” and then we have cast operators which we can use to explicitly convert values from one type to another which is called “explicit conversion”. We will first see implicit conversion.

5.3.1. Usual Arithmetic Conversions

Many operators that expect operands of arithmetic type cause conversions and yield result types in a similar way. The purpose is to determine a common real type for the operands and result. For the specified operands, each operand is converted, without change of type domain, to a type whose corresponding real type is the common real type. Unless explicitly stated otherwise, the common real type is alo the corresponding real type of the result, whose type domain is the type domian of the operands if they are the same, and complex otherwise. This pattern is called the usual arithmetic convresions:

  • First, if the corresponding real type of either operand is long double, the other operand is converted, without change of type domain, to a type whose coresponding real type is long double.
  • Otherwise, if the corresponding real type of either operand is double, the other operand is converted, without change of type domain, to a type whose coreesponding real type is double.
  • Otherwise, if the corresponding real type of either operand is float, the other operand is converted, without change of type domain, to a type whose coreesponding real type is float.
  • Otherwise, the integer promotions are performed on both operands. Then the following rules are applied to the promoted operands:
    • If both operands have the same type, then no further conversion is needed.
    • Otherwise, if both operands have signed integer types or both have unsigned integer types, the operand with the type of lesser integer conversion rank is converted to the type of the operand with greater rank.
    • Otherwise, if the operand that has unsigned integer type has rank greater or equal to the rank of the type of the other operand, then the operand with signed integer type is converted to the type of the operand with unsigned integer type.
    • Otherwise, if the type of the operand with signed integer type can represent all of the values of the type of the operand with unsigned integer type, then the operand with unsigned integer type is converted to the type of the operand with signed integer type.
    • Otherwise, both operands are converted to the unsigned integer type corresponding to the type of the operand with signed integer type.
  • The values of floating operands and of the results of floating expressions may be represented in greater precision and range than that required by the type; the types are not changed thereby.

5.3.2. Expressions

Majority of this comes from specification n1570.pdf. An expression is a sequence of operators and operands. This sequence of operators and operands will lead to some computation; needless to say, however, it may designate an object or a function or it may generate a side effect or a combination. The value computations of the operands of an operator are sequenced before the value computation of the result of the operator.

Consider the following where ++ is used as prefix and postfix increment unary operator, which should increment the value of operand after evaluating the operand:

i = ++i + 1;

a[i++] = i;

however, this is an undefined bahavior because if a side effect on a scalar (all arithmetic and pointer types are scalar) object is unsequenced relative to either a different side effect on the same scalar onject or a value computation using the value of the same scalar object, the behavior is undefined. If there are multiple allowable orderings of the subexpression of an expression, the behavior is undefined if such an unsequenced side effect occurs in any of the orderings.

The groupings of operators and operands is indicated by the syntax. The syntax specifies the precedence of operators in the evaluation, highest precedence first. The table is given later. The exceptions are cast expressions as operands of unary operators, and an operand contained between any of the following pairs of operators: grouping parentheses (), subscripting brackets[], function call parentheses (), and the conditional operator ?:. Except as specified later, side effects and value computations of subexpressions are unsequenced. In an expression that is evaluated more than once during the execution of a program, unsequenced and indeterminately sequenced evaluations of its subexpressions need not be performed consistently in different evaluations.

Some operators (the unary operator ~, and the binary operators <<, >>, &, ^, and |, collectively described as bitwise opearators) are required to have operands that have integer types. These operators yield values that depend on the internal representation of intergers, and have implementation-defined and undefined aspects for signed types.

If an exceptional condition occurs during the evaluation of an expression (that is, if the result is not mathematicslly defined or not in the range of representable values for its type), the behavior is undefined.

The effective type of an object for an access to its stored value is the declared type of the object, if any. Note that allocated objects have no declared type. If a value is stored into an object having no declared type through an lvalue (a value whose address can be taken) having a type that is not a character type, then the type of the lvalue becomes the effective type of the object for that access and for subsequent accesses that do not modify the stored value. If a value is copied into an object having no declared type using memcpy or memmove, or is copied as an array of character type, then the effective type of the modified object for that access and for subsequent accesses that do not modify the value is the effective type of the object from which the value is copied, if it has one. For all other accesses to an object having no declared type, the effective type of the object is simply the type of the lvalue used for the access.

An object will have its stored value accessed only by an lvalue expression that has one of the following types:

  • a type compatible with the effective type of the object,
  • a qualified version of a type compatible with the effective type of the object,
  • a type that is the signed or unsigned type corresponding to the effective type of the object,
  • a type that is the signed or unsigned type corresponding to a qualified
  • version of the effective type of the object,
  • an aggregate or union type that includes one of the aforementioned types among its members (including, recursively, a member of a subaggregate or contained union), or a character type.

A floating expression may be contracted, that is, evaluated as though it were an atomic operation, thereby omitting rounding errors implied by the source code and the expression evaluation method. A contracted expression might also omit raising of floating-point exceptions. The FP_CONTRACT pragma in provides a way to disallow contracted expressions. Otherwise, whether and how expressions are contracted is implementation-defined.

5.3.2.1. Primary Expressions

An identifer is a primary expression, provided it has been decared as designating an object (in which case it is an lvalue) or a function (in which case it is a function designator). Thus, an undeclared identifire is a violation of syntax.

A constant is a primary expression. Its type depends on its form and lvalue (A value whose memory address can be taken. All variables except addresses themselves fall in this category).

A string literal is a primary expression. It is an lvalue.

A parenthesized expression is a primary expression. Its type and value are identical to those of upparenthesized expression. It is an lvalue, a function designator, or a void expression if the unparenthesized expression is, respectively, an lvalue, a function designator, or a void expression.

5.3.3. Operators

C is very rich in operators considering the fact that it is so old. So what I will do is that divide them in groups and then study them. Each operator is given in its own section to ease the navigation. After describing the operators example programs are also given with their output and brief description as always.

5.3.4. Additive Operators

There are two operators in this category. One you have seen in second chapter. These are + and -.

For addition, either both the operands will have arithmetic type, or one operand will be a pointer to an object type and the other will have integer type. (Incrementing is equivalent to adding 1.) We will see pointer arithmetic in the chapter dealing with pointers and arrays.

For subtraction following will hold:

  • both operands have arithmetic type;
  • both operands are pointers to qualified or unqualified versions of compatible object types; or
  • the left operand is a pointer to an object type and the right operand has integer type. (Decrementing is equivalent to subtracting 1.)

If both operands have arithmetic type, the usual arithmetic conversions are performed on them. The result of the binary + operator is the sum of the operands. The result of the binary - operator is the difference resulting from the subtraction of the second operand from the first. There is also something called pointer arithmetic which we will see in Chapter 6 describing pointers and arrays.

5.3.5. Multiplicative Operators

There are three multiplicative operators. These are *, / and %. Each of the operands for these operands will have arithmetic type. That is character string cannot participate. The operands of % will have interger type. The usual arithmetic conversion are performed on the operands. The result of binary * operator is the product of operands. The result of the / operator is the quotient from the division; the result of the % operator is the remainder. In both the operations, if denominator is zero, the behavior is undefined. When integers are divided, the result of / operator is the algebraic quotient with any fractional parts discarded. This is often called “truncation towards zero”. Let us see a small program demonstrating these five arithmetic operators:

// Arithmetic operators
// Author: Shiv S. Dayal
// Description: Demo of arithmetic operators

#include <stdio.h>

int main()
{
  int i = 10;
  float f= 6.45;
  char c = 'A';
  int iResult = 0;
  float fResult = 0.0;
  char cResult = '\0';

  cResult = c + i;
  printf("cResult = %c\n", cResult);
  cResult = cResult - 5;
  printf("cResult = %c\n", cResult);

  iResult = i - 10;
  printf("iResult = %d\n", iResult);
  iResult = i * c;
  printf("iResult = %d\n", iResult);
  iResult = (i + c)/3;
  printf("Result = %d\n", iResult);
  iResult = (i + c)%2;
  printf("iesult = %d\n", iResult);

  fResult = f * 2.12;
  printf("fesult = %f\n", fResult);
  fResult = f - i;
  printf("fesult = %f\n", fResult);
  fResult = f / 1.12;
  printf("fesult = %f\n", fResult);
  fResult = 1 % 3;
  printf("fesult = %f\n", fResult);

  return 0;
}

and the output is:

cResult = K
cResult = F
iResult = 0
iResult = 650
Result = 25
iesult = 1
fesult = 13.674000
fesult = -3.550000
fesult = 5.758928
fesult = 1.000000

First cResult is sumof 'A' + i which is 'K' as 'K' comes ten positions after A in ASCII table. Then we subtract five and go back to F.

First iReasult is 10 - i where value of i is 10 hence result is 0. Next we multiply it with c which contains 'A' who has got ASCII value of 65 and result becomes 650. Then We take sum of 'A' and i and divide by 3 so the result is 25 as it is a division of 75 by 3. Next we use modulus operator and remainder is 1. Note that in case of / and % if denominator is zero the behavior is undefined.

Same way you can udnerstand floating-point operations. Note that you cannot use modulus operator if either of the operands are floating-point numbers as it will make no sense because of data type promotion rules. Here data type promotion rule says smaller data types will be converted to bigger data types. Also, if there is a data type on left side of assignment the result of applying the operator to operands will be converted to the type of that. chars are promoted to ints, ints are promoted to floats anf floats to double. The point is that conversion will try to keep as much data as possible.

5.3.6. Relational Operators

There are four relational operators: <, >, <= and >=. One of the following will be true for these operators:

  • both operands have real type;
  • both operands are pointers to qualified or unqualified versions of compatible object types (types that fully describe onjects; we will see pointers later); or
  • both operands are pointers to qualified or unqualified versions of compatible incomplete types (types that describe onjects but lack information needed to determine their size).
  • If both the operands have arithmetic type, the usual arithmetic convrsions are performed.
  • For the purposes of these operators, a pointer to an object that is not an element of an array behaves the same as a pointer to the first element of an array of length onr with the type of the object as its element type.
  • When two pointers are compared, the result depends on the relative locations in the address space of the objects pointed to. If two pointers to object or incomplete types both point to the same object, or both point one past the last element of the same array object, they compare equal. If the objects pointed to are members of the same aggregate object, pointers to structure members declared later compare greater than pointers to members declared earlier in the structure, and pointers to array elements with larger subscript values compare greater than pointers to elements of the same array with lower subscript values. All pointers to members of the same union object compare equal. If the expression P points to an element of an array object and the expression Q points to the last element of the same array object, the pointer expression Q+1 compares greater than P. In all other cases, the behavior is undefined.
  • Each of the operators < (less than), > (greater than), <= (less than or equal to), and >= (greater than or equal to) will yield 1 if the specified relation is true and 0 if it is false. The expression a<b<c is not implemented as in ordinary mathematics. As the syntax indicates, it means (a<b)<c. The result has type int.
// Author : Shiv S. Dayal
// Description : Demo of relational operator

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdbool.h>

int main()
{
  int i = 4, j = 5;
  _Bool result = 0;

  result = i < j;
  printf("%d\n", result);

  result = i > j;
  printf("%d\n", result);

  result = i <= j;
  printf("%d\n", result);

  result = i >= j;
  printf("%d\n", result);

  return 0;
}

and the output is:

1
0
1
0

Note that you should not apply these to floating-point data types as they may not be represented correctly and two different entities have the same internal representation.

5.3.7. Equality Operators

There are two equlity operators == and !=. Following contraints apply to these:

  • both operands have arithmetic type;
  • both operands are pointers to qualified or unqualified versions of compatible types; or
  • one operand is a pointer to an object or incomplete type and the other is a
  • pointer to a qualified or unqualified version of void; or
  • one operand is a pointer and the other is a null pointer constant.

Given below are semantics of these operators.

  • The == (equal to) and != (not equal to) operators are analogous to the relational operators except for their lower precedence. Because of the precedences, a<b == c<d is 1 whenever a<b and c<d have the same truth-value. Each of the operators yields 1 if the specified relation is true and 0 if it is false. The result has type int. For any pair of operands, exactly one of the relations is true.
  • If both of the operands have arithmetic type, the usual arithmetic conversions are performed. Values of complex types are equal if and only if both their real parts are equal and also their imaginary parts are equal. Any two values of arithmetic types from different type domains are equal if and only if the results of their conversions to the (complex) result type determined by the usual arithmetic conversions are equal.
  • Otherwise, at least one operand is a pointer. If one operand is a pointer and the other is a null pointer constant, the null pointer constant is converted to the type of the pointer. If one operand is a pointer to an object or incomplete type and the other is a pointer to a qualified or unqualified version of void, the former is converted to the type of the latter.
  • Two pointers compare equal if and only if both are null pointers, both are pointers to the same object (including a pointer to an object and a subobject at its beginning) or function, both are pointers to one past the last element of the same array object, or one is a pointer to one past the end of one array object and the other is a pointer to the start of a different array object that happens to immediately follow the first array object in the address space.
  • For the purposes of these operators, a pointer to an object that is not an element of an array behaves the same as a pointer to the first element of an array of length one with the type of the object as its element type.
// Author : Shiv S. Dayal
// Description : Demo of equality operator

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdbool.h>
int main()
{
  int i = 4, j = 5;
  _Bool result = 0;

  result = i == j;
  printf("%d\n", result);

  result = i != j;
  printf("%d\n", result);

  return 0;
}

and the output is:

0
1

5.3.8. Increment and Decrement Operators

There is one increment and one decrement operator. ++ and --. Both come in two forms prefix and postfix. First we will see prefix versions then postfix ones. There is only one constraint on prefix operators of these and that is the operand of the prefix increment or decrement operator will have qualified or unqualified real or pointer type and will be a modifiable lvalue.

The value of the operand of prefix ++ operator is incremented. The result is the new value of the operand after incrementation. The ++E is equivalent to (E += 1).

The prefix – operator is analogous to the prefix ++ operator except that the value of the operand is decremented. Now we will see postfix ones; the constraints are the same as prefix ones.

The result of the postfix ++ operator is the value of the operand. As a side effect, the value of the operand object is incremented (that is, the value 1 of the appropriate type is added to it). The value computation of the result is sequenced before the side effect of updating the stored value of the operand. With respect to an indeterminately-sequenced function call, the operation of postfix ++ is a single evaluation. The prefix -- operator is analogous to the prefix ++ operator except that the value of the operand is incremented. Here is the demo:

// Author : Shiv S. Dayal
// Description : Demo of increment decrement operators

#include <stdio.h>

int main()
{
  float f = 7.123;

  printf("%f\n", ++f);
  printf("%f\n", --f);
  printf("%f\n", f++);
  printf("%f\n", f--);
  printf("%f\n", f);

  return 0;
}

and the output is:

8.123000
7.123000
7.123000
8.123000
7.123000

5.3.9. Logical Operators

There are two such operators. && logical AND and || locical OR. Both the operators have the same constraints and it is that both the operands will have scalar type.

The && operator gives 1 if both the operands are non-zero else 0. The result type is int. It is different from bitwise & operator in the sense that it guarantess left-to-right evaluation; if the second operand is evaluated, there is a sequence point between the evaluations of the first and second operands. If the first operand is 0 then the second operand is not evaluated. This is known as “short-circuit evaluation”.

The || operator gives 1 if any of operands are non-zero else it gives 0. Same as logical AND operator and unlike bitwise | operator it guarantees left-to-right evaluation and same goes for sequence points. If first operand is non-zero, the second is not evaluated.

      // Author : Shiv S. Dayal
// Description : Demo of logical AND & OR operators

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdbool.h>

int main()
{
  int i = 4, j = 5, k = 0;
  bool result;

  result = i&&j;
  printf("%d\n", result);

  result = i||j;
  printf("%d\n", result);

  result = k&&j;
  printf("%d\n", result);

  result = k||j;
  printf("%d\n", result);

  return 0;
}

and the output is:

1
1
0
1

note the use of bool here instead of _Bool.

5.3.10. Bitwise Operators

There are three bitwise operators. &, |, and ^. AND, OR and EX-OR respectively. OR is also called inclusive OR. These have the same contsraints and it is that operands should be integer types. The usual arithmetic conversions are performed on the operands.

The result of bianry & is the bitwise AND of operands (that is, each bit in the result is set if and only if each of the corresponding bits in the operands is set.)

The result of the ^ operator is the bitwise exclusive OR of the operands (that is, each bit in the result is set if and only if exactly one of the corresponding bits in the converted operands is set).

The result of the | operator is the bitwise inclusive OR of the operands (that is, each bit in the result is set if and only if at least one of the corresponding bits in the converted operands is set).

// Author : Shiv S. Dayal
// Description : Demo of bitwise operators

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdbool.h>

int main()
{
  int i = 4, j = 5;
  int result;

  result = i&j;
  printf("%d\n", result);

  result = i|j;
  printf("%d\n", result);

  result = i^j;
  printf("%d\n", result);

  return 0;
}

and the output is:

4
5
1

5.3.11. Bitwise Shift Operators

The constraint is same as other bitwise operators that operands should be integers. The integer promotions are performed on each of the operands. The type of the result if that of the promoted left operand. If the value of the right operand is negative or is greater than or equal to the width of the promoted left operand, the behavior is undefined.

The result of E1 << E2 is E1 left-shifted E2 bit-positions; vacated bits are filled with zeros. If E1 has an unsigned type, the value of the result is \(E1 * 2^{E2}\) , reduced modulo one more than the maximum value representable in the reasult type. If E1 has a signed type and and nonnegative value, and \(E1 * 2^{E2}\) is representable in the result type, then that is the resulting value; otherwise the behavior is undefined.

The result of E1 >> E2 is E1 right-shifted E2 bit-positions. If E1 has an unsigned type or if E1 has a signed type and a nonegative value, the value of the result is the integral part of the quotient of \(E1/2^{E2}\). If E1 has a signed type and a negative value, the resulting value is implementation-defined.

// Author : Shiv S. Dayal
// Description : Demo of shift operators

#include <stdio.h>

int main()
{
  int i  = 4;
  char c ='A';
  int result;

  result = c<<i;
  printf("%d\n", result);

  result = c>>i;
  printf("%d\n", result);

  return 0;
}

5.3.12. Assignment Operators

These are = *= /= %= += -= <<= >>= &= ^= and |= The only constraint is that left operand should be modifiable lvalue. An assignment operator stores a value in the object designated by the left operand. An assignment expression has the value of the left operand after the assignment, but is not an lvalue. The type of an assignment expression is the type of the left operand unless the left operand has qualified type, in which case it is the unqualified version of the type of the left operand. The side effect of updating the stored value of the left operand is sequenced after the value computations of the left and right operands. The evaluations of the operands are unsequenced.

5.3.12.1. Simple Assignment

One of the following will hold:

  • the left operand has qualified or unqualified arithmetic type and the right has arithmetic type;
  • the left operand has a qualified or unqualified version of a structure or union type compatible with the type of the right;
  • both operands are pointers to qualified or unqualified versions of compatible types, and the type pointed to by the left has all the qualifiers of the type pointed to by the right;
  • one operand is a pointer to an object or incomplete type and the other is a pointer to a qualified or unqualified version of void, and the type pointed to by the left has all the qualifiers of the type pointed to by the right;
  • the left operand is a pointer and the right is a null pointer constant; or
  • the left operand has type _Bool and the right is a pointer.

In simple assignment (=), the value of the right operand is converted to the type of the assignment expression and replaces the value stored in the object designated by the left operand.

If the value being stored in an object is read from another object that overlaps in any way the storage of the first object, then the overlap will be exact and the two objects will have qualified or unqualified versions of a compatible type; otherwise, the behavior is undefined.

5.3.12.2. Compound Assignment

For the operators += and -= only, either the left operand will be a pointer to an object type and the right will have integer type, or the left operand will have qualified or unqualified arithmetic type and the right will have arithmetic type. For the other operators, each operand will have arithmetic type consistent with those allowed by the corresponding binary operator.

A compound assignment of the form E1 op= E2 is equivalent to the simple assignment expression E1 = E1 op (E2), except that the lvalue E1 is evaluated only once, and with respect to an indeterminately-sequenced function call, the operation of a compound assignment is a single evaluation.

// Author: Shiv S. Dayal
// Description: Demo of compound assignments.

#include <stdio.h>

int main()
{
  int i   = 3;
  int j   = 3;
  float f = 4.7;
  float result=0.0;

  result += i+f;
  printf("%f\n", result);

  result -= f;
  printf("%f\n", result);

  j <<= i;
  printf("%d\n", j);

  return 0;
}

and the output is:

7.700000
3.000000
24

5.3.12.3. Conditoinal Operators

It has the following form: E1 ? E2 :E3;. If E1 is true then E2 is assigned to lvalue else E2 is assigned. It has following constraints:

  • The first operand will have scalar type.
  • One of the following will hold for the second and third operands:
    • both operands have arithmetic type;
    • both opearands have the same structure or union type;
    • both operands have void type;
    • both operands are pointers to qualified or unqualified versions of compatible types;
    • one operand is a pointer and the other is a null pointer constant; or
    • one operand is a pointer to an object or incomplete type and the other is a pointer to a qualified or unqualified version of void.

The first operand is evaluated; there is a sequence point between its evaluation and the evaluation of the second or third operand (whichever is evaluated). The second operand is evaluated only if the first compares unequal to 0; the third operand is evaluated only if the first compares equal to 0; the result is the value of the second or third operand (whichever is evaluated), converted to the type described below. Note that a conditional expression does not give an lvalue.

If both the second and third operands have arithmetic type, the result type that would be determined by the usual arithmetic conversions, were they applied to those two operands, is the type of the result. If both the operands have structure or union type, the result has that type. If both operands have void type, the result has void type.

If both the second and third operands are pointers or one is a null pointer constant and the other is a pointer, the result type is a pointer to a type qualified with all the type qualifiers of the types pointed-to by both operands. Furthermore, if both operands are pointers to compatible types or to differently qualified versions of compatible types, the result type is a pointer to an appropriately qualified version of the composite type; if one operand is a null pointer constant, the result has the type of the other operand; otherwise, one operand is a pointer to void or a qualified version of void, in which case the result type is a pointer to an appropriately qualified version of void.

// Author : Shiv S. Dayal
// Description : Demo of conditional operator

#include <stdio.h>

int main()
{
  int i = (4 < 5)? 7:10;

  printf("%d\n", i);

  return 0;
}

output is 7 as 4 is less than 5 which is true.

5.3.12.4. Comma Operators

It is a very simple operator. The left operand of a comma operator is evaluated as a void expression; there is a sequence point between its evaluation and that of the right operand. Then the right operand is evaluated; the result has its type and value. A comma operator does not give an lvalue.

5.3.12.5. sizeof Operators

You have already see sizeof operator in second chapter when we saw sizes of data types. However here is the constraint: the sizeof operator will not be applied to an expression that has function type or an incomplete type, to the parenthesized name of such a type, or to an expression that designates a bit-field member.

The sizeof operator yields the size (in bytes) of its operand, which may be an expression or the parenthesized name of a type. The size is determined from the type of the operand. The result is an integer. If the type of the operand is a variable length array type, the operand is evaluated; otherwise, the operand is not evaluated and the result is an integer constant.

When applied to an operand that has type char, unsigned char, or signed char, (or a qualified version thereof) the result is 1. When applied to an operand that has array type, the result is the total number of bytes in the array. When applied to an operand that has structure or union type, the result is the total number of bytes in such an object, including internal and trailing padding.

5.3.12.6. Unary Arithmetic Operators

The operand of the unary + or - operator will have arithmetic type; of the ~ operator, integer type; of the ! operator, scalar type.

The result of the unary + operator is the value of its (promoted) operand. The integer promotions are performed on the operand, and the result has the promoted type.

The result of the unary - operator is the negative of its (promoted) operand. The integer promotions are performed on the operand, and the result has the promoted type.

The result of the ~ operator is the bitwise complement of its (promoted) operand (that is, each bit in the result is set if and only if the corresponding bit in the converted operand is not set). The integer promotions are performed on the operand, and the result has the promoted type. If the promoted type is an unsigned type, the expression ~E is equivalent to the maximum value representable in that type minus E.

The result of the logical negation operator ! is 0 if the value of its operand compares unequal to 0, 1 if the value of its operand compares equal to 0. Theresult has type int. The expression !E is equivalent to (0==E).

We will see casting, array subscripting, function parenthes, address and indirection operators later at appropriate time. For now I am going to tell you about operator precedence and associativity and then about grouping parenthes. Given below is the table for operator precedence and associativity, however, you may not be familiar with few of them but later you will be:

Operators Associativity
() [] . -> ++ – (postfix) left-to-right
++ – + - (unary) ! ~ (types) * & sizeof right-to-lfet
* / % left-to-right
+ - (Addition/Subtraction) left-to-right
<< >> left-to-right
< > <= >= left-to-right
== != left-to-right
& left-to-right
^ left-to-right
| left-to-right
&& left-to-right
|| left-to-right
Assignement operators right-to-left
, left-to-right

5.3.13. Grouping parentheses

Grouping parentheses are used to override operator precedence and group expressions. NEVER EVER try to memorize and rely on precedence of operators. Always use grouping parentheses. Till now I have shown very simple examples of operators; here are some complex ones:

// Author: Shiv Shankar Dayal
// Description: Demo of grouping parentheses

#include <stdio.h>

int main()
{
  printf("%f\n", 5.2*(3.7+2.3));
  printf("%d\n", ((4&5)||(7^5)));

  return 0;
}

This small program shows you what can go wrong if you rely on memory. It allows you do addition first and then multiplcation. Inner parentheses are evaluated first then inner ones. This concludes our chapter on operators and expressions. Next we focus on control statements and flow statements.