# 18. Complex arithmetic <complex.h>¶

## 18.1. Introduction¶

The header <complex.h> defines macros and declares functions that support complex arithmetic. Each synopsis specifies a family of functions consisting of a principal function with one or more double complex parameters and a double complex or double return value; and other functions with the same name but with f and l suffixes which are corresponding functions with float and long double parameters and return values.

The macro complex expands to _Complex; the macro _Complex_I expands to a constant expression of type const float _Complex, with the value of the imaginary unit. 1

The macro I expands to _Complex_I.

Notwithstanding the provisions of reserved identifiers, a program may undefine and perhaps then redefine the macros complex and I.

Forward references: IEC 60559-compatible complex arithmetic (annex G).

## 18.2. Conventions¶

Values are interpreted as radians, not degrees. An implementation may set errno but is not required to.

1

The imaginary unit is a number $$i$$ such that $$i^2 = -1$$.

## 18.3. Branch Cuts¶

Some of the functions below have branch cuts, across which the function is discontinuous. For implementations with a signed zero (including all IEC 60559 implementations) that follow the specifications of annex G, the sign of zero distinguishes one side of a cut from another so the function is continuous (except for format limitations) as the cut is approached from either side. For example, for the square root function, which has a branch cut along the negative real axis, the top of the cut, with imaginary part +0, maps to the positive imaginary axis, and the bottom of the cut, with imaginary part -0, maps to the negative imaginary axis.

Implementations that do not support a signed zero (see annex F) cannot distinguish the sides of branch cuts. These implementations shall map a cut so the function is continuous as the cut is approached coming around the finite endpoint of the cut in a counter clockwise direction. (Branch cuts for the functions specified here have just one finite endpoint.) For example, for the square root function, coming counter clockwise around the finite endpoint of the cut along the negative real axis approaches the cut from above, so the cut maps to the positive imaginary axis.

## 18.4. The CX_LIMITED_RANGE Pragma¶

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
#pragma STDC CX_LIMITED_RANGE on-off-switch


Description

The usual mathematical formulas for complex multiply, divide, and absolute value are problematic because of their treatment of infinities and because of undue overflow and underflow. The CX_LIMITED_RANGE pragma can be used to inform the implementation that (where the state is “on”) the usual mathematical formulas are acceptable. 2 The pragma can occur either outside external declarations or preceding all explicit declarations and statements inside a compound statement. When outside external declarations, the pragma takes effect from its occurrence until another CX_LIMITED_RANGE pragma is encountered, or until the end of the translation unit. When inside a compound statement, the pragma takes effect from its occurrence until another CX_LIMITED_RANGE pragma is encountered (including within a nested compound statement), or until the end of the compound statement; at the end of a compound statement the state for the pragma is restored to its condition just before the compound statement. If this pragma is used in any other context, the behavior is undefined. The default state for the pragma is “off”.

2

The purpose of the pragma is to allow the implementation to use the formulas

## 18.5. Trigonometric Functions¶

### 18.5.1. The cacos Functions¶

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double complex cacos(double complex z);
float complex cacosf(float complex z);
long double complex cacosl(long double complex z);


Description

The cacos functions compute the complex arc cosine of z, with branch cuts outside the interval [-1, +1] along the real axis.

Returns

The cacos functions return the complex arc cosine value, in the range of a strip mathematically unbounded along the imaginary axis and in the interval [0, $$\pi$$] along the real axis.

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double complex cacos(double complex z);
float complex cacosf(float complex z);
long double complex cacosl(long double complex z);


Link with -lm.

Description

The cacos() function calculates the complex arc cosine of z. If y = cacos(z), then z = ccos(y). The real part of y is chosen in the interval [0, $$\pi$$].

One has:

cacos(z) = -i * clog(z + i * csqrt(1 - z * z))


Example

#include <stdio.h>
#include <complex.h>

int main()
{
double complex z = 3.0 + 4.0i;

printf("Re[cacos(z)]=%lf and Im[cacos(z)]=%lf\n", creal(cacos(z)), cimag(cacos(z)));

return 0;
}


Compile like gcc filename.c -lm. Execution gives following output:

Re[cacos(z)]=0.936812 and Im[cacos(z)]=-2.305509


### 18.5.2. The casin Functions¶

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double complex casin(double complex z);
float complex casinf(float complex z);
long double complex casinl(long double complex z);


Description

The casin functions compute the complex arc sine of z, with branch cuts outside the interval [-1, +1] along the real axis.

Returns

The casin functions return the complex arc sine value, in the range of a strip mathematically unbounded along the imaginary axis and in the interval [$$-\pi/2, +\pi/2$$] along the real axis.

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double complex casin(double complex z);
float complex casinf(float complex z);
long double complex casinl(long double complex z);


Description

The complex sine function is defined as:

csin(z) = (exp(i * z) - exp(-i * z)) / (2 * i)


Example

#include <stdio.h>
#include <complex.h>

int main()
{
double complex z = 3.0 + 4.0i;

printf("Re[cacsin(z)]=%lf and Im[cacsin(z)]=%lf\n", creal(casin(z)), cimag(casin(z)));

return 0;
}


Compile like gcc filename.c -lm. Execution gives following output:

Re[cacsin(z)]=0.633984 and Im[cacsin(z)]=2.305509


### 18.5.3. The catan Functions¶

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double complex catan(double complex z);
float complex catanf(float complex z);
long double complex catanl(long double complex z);


Description

The catan functions compute the complex arc tangent of z, with branch cuts outside the interval [-i, +i] along the imaginary axis.

Returns

The catan functions return the complex arc tangent value, in the range of a strip mathematically unbounded along the imaginary axis and in the interval [$$-\pi/2, +\pi/2$$] along the real axis.

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double complex catan(double complex z);
float complex catanf(float complex z);
long double complex catanl(long double complex z);


Link with -lm.

Description

The catan() function calculates the complex arc tangent of z. If y = catan(z), then z = ctan(y). The real part of y is chosen in the interval [$$-\pi/2, \pi/2$$].

One has:

catan(z) = (clog(1 + i * z) - clog(1 - i * z)) / (2 * i)


Example

#include <stdio.h>
#include <complex.h>

int main()
{
double complex z = 3.0 + 4.0i;

printf("Re[cactan(z)]=%lf and Im[cactan(z)]=%lf\n", creal(catan(z)), cimag(catan(z)));

return 0;
}


Compile like gcc filename.c -lm. Execution gives following output:

Re[cactan(z)]=1.448307 and Im[cactan(z)]=0.158997


### 18.5.4. The ccos functions¶

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double complex ccos(double complex z);
float complex ccosf(float complex z);
long double complex ccosl(long double complex z);


Description

The ccos functions compute the complex cosine of z.

Returns

The ccos functions return the complex cosine value.

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double complex ccos(double complex z);
float complex ccosf(float complex z);
long double complex ccosl(long double complex z);


Link with -lm.

Description

The complex cosine function is defined as:

ccos(z) = (exp(i * z) + exp(-i * z)) / 2


Example

#include <stdio.h>
#include <complex.h>

int main()
{
double complex z = 3.0 + 4.0i;

printf("Re[ccos(z)]=%lf and Im[ccos(z)]=%lf\n", creal(ccos(z)), cimag(ccos(z)));

return 0;
}


and the output is:

Re[ccos(z)]=-27.034946 and Im[ccos(z)]=-3.851153


### 18.5.5. The csin functions¶

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double complex csin(double complex z);
float complex csinf(float complex z);
long double complex csinl(long double complex z);


Description

The csin functions compute the complex sine of z.

Returns

The csin functions return the complex sine value.

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double complex csin(double complex z);
float complex csinf(float complex z);
long double complex csinl(long double complex z);


Link with -lm.

Description

The complex sine function is defined as:

csin(z) = (exp(i * z) - exp(-i * z)) / (2 * i)


Example

#include <stdio.h>
#include <complex.h>

int main()
{
double complex z = 3.0 + 4.0i;

printf("Re[csin(z)]=%lf and Im[csin(z)]=%lf\n", creal(csin(z)), cimag(csin(z)));

return 0;
}


and the output is:

Re[csin(z)]=3.853738 and Im[csin(z)]=-27.01681


### 18.5.6. The ctan functions¶

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double complex ctan(double complex z);
float complex ctanf(float complex z);
long double complex ctanl(long double complex z);


Description

The ctan functions compute the complex tangent of z.

Returns

The ctan functions return the complex tangent value.

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double complex ctan(double complex z);
float complex ctanf(float complex z);
long double complex ctanl(long double complex z);


Link with -lm.

Description

The complex tangent function is defined as:

ctan(z) = csin(z) / ccos(z)


Example

#include <stdio.h>
#include <complex.h>

int main()
{
double complex z = 3.0 + 4.0i;

printf("Re[ctann(z)]=%lf and Im[ctan(z)]=%lf\n", creal(ctan(z)), cimag(ctan(z)));

return 0;
}


and the output is:

Re[ctann(z)]=-0.000187 and Im[ctan(z)]=0.999356


## 18.6. Hyperbolic functions¶

### 18.6.1. The cacosh functions¶

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double complex cacosh(double complex z);
float complex cacoshf(float complex z);
long double complex cacoshl(long double complex z);


Description

The cacosh functions compute the complex arc hyperbolic cosine of z, with a branch cut at values less than 1 along the real axis.

Returns

The cacosh functions return the complex arc hyperbolic cosine value, in the range of a half-strip of non-negative values along the real axis and in the interval [$$-i\pi , +i\pi$$] along the imaginary axis.

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double complex cacosh(double complex z);
float complex cacoshf(float complex z);
long double complex cacoshl(long double complex z);


Description

The cacosh() function calculates the complex arc hyperpolic cosine of z. If y = cacosh(z), then z = ccosh(y). The imaginary part of y is chosen in the interval [$$-\pi, \pi$$]. The real part of y is chosen nonnegative.

One has:

cacosh(z) = 2 * clog(csqrt((z + 1) / 2) + csqrt((z - 1) / 2))


Example

#include <stdio.h>
#include <complex.h>

int main()
{
double complex z = 3.0 + 4.0i;

printf("Re[cacosh(z)]=%lf and Im[cacosh(z)]=%lf\n", creal(cacosh(z)), cimag(cacosh(z)));

return 0;
}


and the output is:

Re[cacosh(z)]=2.305509 and Im[cacosh(z)]=0.93681


### 18.6.2. The casinh functions¶

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double complex casinh(double complex z);
float complex casinhf(float complex z);
long double complex casinhl(long double complex z);


Description

The casinh functions compute the complex arc hyperbolic sine of z, with branch cuts outside the interval [-i, +i] along the imaginary axis.

Returns

The casinh functions return the complex arc hyperbolic sine value, in the range of a strip mathematically unbounded along the real axis and in the interval [$$-i\pi/2, +i\pi/2$$] along the imaginary axis.

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double complex casinh(double complex z);
float complex casinhf(float complex z);
long double complex casinhl(long double complex z);


Link with -lm.

Description

The casinh() function calculates the complex arc hyperbolic sine of z. If y = casinh(z), then z = csinh(y). The imaginary part of y is chosen in the interval [$$-pi/2, pi/2$$].

One has:

casinh(z) = clog(z + csqrt(z * z + 1))


Example

#include <stdio.h>
#include <complex.h>

int main()
{
double complex z = 3.0 + 4.0i;

printf("Re[casinh(z)]=%lf and Im[casinh(z)]=%lf\n", creal(casinh(z)), cimag(casinh(z)));

return 0;
}


and the output is:

Re[casinh(z)]=2.299914 and Im[casinh(z)]=0.917617


### 18.6.3. The catanh functions¶

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double complex catanh(double complex z);
float complex catanhf(float complex z);
long double complex catanhl(long double complex z);


Description

The catanh functions compute the complex arc hyperbolic tangent of z, with branch cuts outside the interval [-1, +1] along the real axis.

Returns

The catanh functions return the complex arc hyperbolic tangent value, in the range of a strip mathematically unbounded along the real axis and in the interval [$$-i\pi/2, +i\pi/2$$] along the imaginary axis.

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double complex catanh(double complex z);
float complex catanhf(float complex z);
long double complex catanhl(long double complex z);


Link with -lm.

Description

The catanh() function calculates the complex arc hyperbolic tangent of z. If y = catanh(z), then z = ctanh(y). The imaginary part of y is chosen in the interval [$$-pi/2, pi/2$$].

One has:

catanh(z) = 0.5 * (clog(1 + z) - clog(1 - z))


Example

#include <stdio.h>
#include <complex.h>

int main()
{
double complex z = 3.0 + 4.0i;

printf("Re[catanh(z)]=%lf and Im[catanh(z)]=%lf\n", creal(catanh(z)), cimag(catanh(z)));

return 0;
}


and the output is:

Re[catanh(z)]=0.117501 and Im[catanh(z)]=1.409921


### 18.6.4. The ccosh functions¶

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double complex ccosh(double complex z);
float complex ccoshf(float complex z);
long double complex ccoshl(long double complex z);


Description

The ccosh functions compute the complex hyperbolic cosine of z.

Returns

The ccosh functions return the complex hyperbolic cosine value.

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double complex ccosh(double complex z);
float complex ccoshf(float complex z);
long double complex ccoshl(long double complex z);


Link with -lm.

Description

The complex hyperbolic cosine function is defined as:

ccosh(z) = (exp(z)+exp(-z))/2


Example

#include <stdio.h>
#include <complex.h>

int main()
{
double complex z = 3.0 + 4.0i;

printf("Re[ccosh(z)]=%lf and Im[ccosh(z)]=%lf\n", creal(ccosh(z)), cimag(ccosh(z)));

return 0;
}


and the output is:

Re[ccosh(z)]=-6.580663 and Im[ccosh(z)]=-7.581553


### 18.6.5. The csinh functions¶

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double complex csinh(double complex z);
float complex csinhf(float complex z);
long double complex csinhl(long double complex z);


Description

The csinh functions compute the complex hyperbolic sine of z.

Returns

The csinh functions return the complex hyperbolic sine value.

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double complex csinh(double complex z);
float complex csinhf(float complex z);
long double complex csinhl(long double complex z);


Link with -lm.

Description

The complex hyperbolic sine function is defined as:

csinh(z) = (exp(z)-exp(-z))/2


Example

#include <stdio.h>
#include <complex.h>

int main()
{
double complex z = 3.0 + 4.0i;

printf("Re[csinh(z)]=%lf and Im[csinh(z)]=%lf\n", creal(csinh(z)), cimag(csinh(z)));

return 0;
}


and the output is

Re[csinh(z)]=-6.548120 and Im[csinh(z)]=-7.619232


### 18.6.6. The ctanh functions¶

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double complex ctanh(double complex z);
float complex ctanhf(float complex z);
long double complex ctanhl(long double complex z);


Description

The ctanh functions compute the complex hyperbolic tangent of z.

Returns

The ctanh functions return the complex hyperbolic tangent value.

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double complex ctanh(double complex z);
float complex ctanhf(float complex z);
long double complex ctanhl(long double complex z);


Link with -lm.

Description

The complex hyperbolic tangent function is defined mathematically as:

ctanh(z) = csinh(z) / ccosh(z)


Example

#include <stdio.h>
#include <complex.h>

int main()
{
double complex z = 3.0 + 4.0i;

printf("Re[ctanh(z)]=%lf and Im[ctanh(z)]=%lf\n", creal(ctanh(z)), cimag(ctanh(z)));

return 0;
}


and the output is:

Re[ctanh(z)]=1.000710 and Im[ctanh(z)]=0.004908


## 18.7. Exponential and logarithmic functions¶

### 18.7.1. The cexp functions¶

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double complex cexp(double complex z);
float complex cexpf(float complex z);
long double complex cexpl(long double complex z);


Description

The cexp functions compute the complex base-e exponential of z.

Returns

The cexp functions return the complex base-e exponential value.

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double complex cexp(double complex z);
float complex cexpf(float complex z);
long double complex cexpl(long double complex z);


Link with -lm.

Description

The function calculates e (2.71828…, the base of natural logarithms) raised to the power of z.

One has:

cexp(I * z) = ccos(z) + I * csin(z)


Example

#include <stdio.h>
#include <complex.h>

int main()
{
double complex z = 3.0 + 4.0i;

printf("Re[cexp(z)]=%lf and Im[cexp(z)]=%lf\n", creal(cexp(z)), cimag(cexp(z)));

return 0;
}


and the output is:

Re[cexp(z)]=-13.128783 and Im[cexp(z)]=-15.200784


### 18.7.2. The clog functions¶

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double complex clog(double complex z);
float complex clogf(float complex z);
long double complex clogl(long double complex z);


Description

The clog functions compute the complex natural (base-e) logarithm of z, with a branch cut along the negative real axis.

Returns The clog functions return the complex natural logarithm value, in the range of a strip mathematically unbounded along the real axis and in the interval [$$-i\pi, +i\pi$$ ] along the imaginary axis.

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double complex clog(double complex z);
float complex clogf(float complex z);
long double complex clogl(long double complex z);


Link with -lm.

Description

The logarithm clog() is the inverse function of the exponential cexp(). Thus, if y = clog(z), then z = cexp(y). The imaginary part of y is chosen in the interval [$$-pi, pi$$].

One has:

clog(z) = log(cabs(z)) + I * carg(z)


Example

#include <stdio.h>
#include <complex.h>

int main()
{
double complex z = 3.0 + 4.0i;

printf("Re[clog(z)]=%lf and Im[clog(z)]=%lf\n", creal(clog(z)), cimag(clog(z)));

return 0;
}


and the output is:

Re[clog(z)]=1.609438 and Im[clog(z)]=0.927295


## 18.8. Power and absolute-value functions¶

### 18.8.1. The cabs functions¶

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double cabs(double complex z);
float cabsf(float complex z);
long double cabsl(long double complex z);


Description

The cabs functions compute the complex absolute value (also called norm, modulus, or magnitude) of z.

Returns

The cabs functions return the complex absolute value.

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double cabs(double complex z);
float cabsf(float complex z);
long double cabsl(long double complex z);


Link with -lm.

Description

The cabs() function returns the absolute value of the complex number z. The result is a real number.

Example

#include <stdio.h>
#include <complex.h>

int main()
{
double complex z = 3.0 + 4.0i;

printf("Re[cabs(z)]=%lf and Im[cabs(z)]=%lf\n", creal(cabs(z)), cimag(cabs(z)));

return 0;
}


and the output is:

Re[cabs(z)]=5.000000 and Im[cabs(z)]=0.000000


### 18.8.2. The cpow functions¶

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double complex cpow(double complex x, double complex y);
float complex cpowf(float complex x, float complex y);
long double complex cpowl(long double complex x, long double complex y);


Description

The cpow functions compute the complex power function $$x^y$$, with a branch cut for the first parameter along the negative real axis.

Returns

The cpow functions return the complex power function value.

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double complex cpow(double complex x, double complex y);
float complex cpowf(float complex x, float complex y);
long double complex cpowl(long double complex x, long double complex y);


Link with -lm.

Description

The function calculates x raised to the power z. (With a branch cut for x along the negative real axis.)

Example

#include <stdio.h>
#include <complex.h>

int main()
{
double complex z = 3.0 + 4.0i;

printf("Re[cpow(z, z)]=%lf and Im[cpow(z, z)]=%lf\n", creal(cpow(z, z)), cimag(cpow(z, z)));

return 0;
}


and the output is:

Re[cpow(z, z)]=-2.997991 and Im[cpow(z, z)]=0.623785


### 18.8.3. The csqrt functions¶

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double complex csqrt(double complex z);
float complex csqrtf(float complex z);
long double complex csqrtl(long double complex z);


Description

The csqrt functions compute the complex square root of z, with a branch cut along the negative real axis.

Returns

The csqrt functions return the complex square root value, in the range of the right halfplane (including the imaginary axis).

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double complex csqrt(double complex z);
float complex csqrtf(float complex z);
long double complex csqrtl(long double complex z);


Link with -lm.

Description

Calculate the square root of a given complex number, with nonnegative real part, and with a branch cut along the negative real axis. (That means that csqrt(-1+eps*I) will be close to I while csqrt(-1-eps*I) will be close to -I, if eps is a small positive real number.)

Example

#include <stdio.h>
#include <complex.h>

int main()
{
double complex z = 3.0 + 4.0i;

printf("Re[csqrt(z)]=%lf and Im[csqrt(z)]=%lf\n", creal(csqrt(z)), cimag(csqrt(z)));

return 0;
}


and the output is:

Re[csqrt(z)]=2.000000 and Im[csqrt(z)]=1.000000


## 18.9. Manipulation functions¶

### 18.9.1. The carg functions¶

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double carg(double complex z);
float cargf(float complex z);
long double cargl(long double complex z);


Description

The carg functions compute the argument (also called phase angle) of z, with a branch cut along the negative real axis.

Returns

The carg functions return the value of the argument in the interval [$$-\pi, +\pi$$].

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double carg(double complex z);
float cargf(float complex z);
long double cargl(long double complex z);


Link with -lm.

Description

A complex number can be described by two real coordinates. One may use rectangular coordinates and gets

z = x + I * y


where x = creal(z) and y = cimag(z).

Or one may use polar coordinates and gets:

z = r * cexp(I * a)


where r = cabs(z) is the “radius”, the “modulus”, the absolute value of z, and a = carg(z) is the “phase angle”, the argument of z.

One has:

tan(carg(z)) = cimag(z) / creal(z)


Return Value

The return value is the range of [$$-pi, pi$$].

Example

#include <stdio.h>
#include <complex.h>

int main()
{
double complex z = 3.0 + 4.0i;

printf("Re[carg(z)]=%lf and Im[carg(z)]=%lf\n", creal(carg(z)), cimag(carg(z)));

return 0;
}


and the output is:

Re[carg(z)]=0.927295 and Im[carg(z)]=0.000000


### 18.9.2. The cimag functions¶

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double cimag(double complex z);
float cimagf(float complex z);
long double cimagl(long double complex z);


Description

The cimag functions compute the imaginary part of z.

Returns

The cimag functions return the imaginary part value (as a real).

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double cimag(double complex z);
float cimagf(float complex z);
long double cimagl(long double complex z);


Link with -lm.

Description

The cimag() function returns the imaginary part of the complex number z.

One has:

z = creal(z) + I * cimag(z)


Example

#include <stdio.h>
#include <complex.h>

int main()
{
double complex z = 3.0 + 4.0i;

printf("Re[cimag(z)]=%lf and Im[cimag(z)]=%lf\n", creal(cimag(z)), cimag(cimag(z)));

return 0;
}


and the output is:

Re[cimag(z)]=4.000000 and Im[cimag(z)]=0.000000


### 18.9.3. The conj functions¶

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double complex conj(double complex z);
float complex conjf(float complex z);
long double complex conjl(long double complex z);


Description

The conj functions compute the complex conjugate of z, by reversing the sign of its imaginary part.

Returns

The conj functions return the complex conjugate value.

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double complex conj(double complex z);
float complex conjf(float complex z);
long double complex conjl(long double complex z);


Link with -lm.

Description

The conj() function returns the complex conjugate value of z. That is the value obtained by changing the sign of the imaginary part.

One has:

cabs(z) = csqrt(z * conj(z))


Example

#include <stdio.h>
#include <complex.h>

int main()
{
double complex z = 3.0 + 4.0i;

printf("Re[conj(z)]=%lf and Im[conj(z)]=%lf\n", creal(conj(z)), cimag(conj(z)));

return 0;
}


and the output is:

Re[conj(z)]=3.000000 and Im[conj(z)]=-4.000000


### 18.9.4. The cproj functions¶

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double complex cproj(double complex z);
float complex cprojf(float complex z);
long double complex cprojl(long double complex z);


Description

The cproj functions compute a projection of z onto the Riemann sphere: z projects to z except that all complex infinities (even those with one infinite part and one NaN part) project to positive infinity on the real axis. If z has an infinite part, then cproj(z) is equivalent to:

INFINITY + I * copysign(0.0, cimag(z))


Returns

The cproj functions return the value of the projection onto the Riemann sphere.

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double complex cproj(double complex z);
float complex cprojf(float complex z);
long double complex cprojl(long double complex z);


Link with -lm.

Description

This function projects a point in the plane onto the surface of a Riemann Sphere, the one-point compactification of the complex plane. Each finite point z projects to z itself. Every complex infinite value is projected to a single infinite value, namely to positive infinity on the real axis.

Example

#include <stdio.h>
#include <complex.h>

int main()
{
double complex z = 3.0 + 4.0i;

printf("Re[cproj(z)]=%lf and Im[cproj(z)]=%lf\n", creal(cproj(z)), cimag    (cproj(z)));

return 0;
}


and the output is:

Re[cproj(z)]=3.000000 and Im[cproj(z)]=4.000000


### 18.9.5. The creal functions¶

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double creal(double complex z);
float crealf(float complex z);
long double creall(long double complex z);


Description

The creal functions compute the real part of z.

Returns

The creal functions return the real part value.

Synopsis

#include <complex.h>
double creal(double complex z);
float crealf(float complex z);
long double creall(long double complex z);


Link with -lm.

Description

The creal() function returns the real part of the complex number z.

One has:

z = creal(z) + I * cimag(z)


Example

#include <stdio.h>
#include <complex.h>

int main()
{
double complex z = 3.0 + 4.0i;

printf("Re[creal(z)]=%lf and Im[creal(z)]=%lf\n", creal(creal(z)), cimag    (creal(z)));

return 0;
}


and the output is:

Re[creal(z)]=3.000000 and Im[creal(z)]=0.000000