2. Introduction

C programming language is a relatively low-level programming language with an inclination towards system programming. This book will try to serve both as a tutorial and reference of C programming language. If you have not programmed earlier then you should read in linear manner. Even if you have programmed it would be better if you read the book in linear fashion because there are certain points which you may miss if you skip chapters. Of all popular mainstream languages C, and Lisp are two oldest but we cannot really say that Lisp is really popular. It has a niche area(artificial intelligence) and it is there for that. So let me redefine my statement. Of all general-purpose and popular programming language C is the oldest. FORTRAN is another very old language but it is not general purpose programming language. So what makes C so special that it is still out there. Well, C and Unix were born almost together in early 1970s. Then Unix was ported in C and the notion that operating systems can be only written in assembly language, because it has to do time critical things, was destroyed. After that Unix became very popular. Then when C++ was not yet there Windows was written in C and more and more programs were written in C. It might have been the case that Microsoft and Apple would have written their OS in C++ had it been there. So, essentially what happened that there is a lot of code base which is there in C. Also, C++’s backward compatibility is one of the reasons why C++ is so popular. When C was invented there was no structured programming language and code was mostly written in assembly. With C it gave the power of assembly and benefits of structured language like code reuse, modularity, and portability among others. Because of these reasons C became immensely popular and is still popular.

C is simple, small, succinct. It may be dirty but is quick. It may have its quirks but it is a success. C is really so simple yet so deceptive. It takes years of programming to really thoroughly understand it, however, the exact number of years vary between people obviously.

C is currently described by ISO/IEC 9899:2011 which you can buy on web or you can get the draft revision open-std.org. It is not necessary to buy the specification as draft is very much similar. I will refer to specification in the form of (§ iso.x.x.x.x) to point to sections where exact information is discussed. Note that specification is written for accuracy and the language is not trivial to understand. At the same time, it does not directly address programmers but compiler writers because there are certain decisions which specification does not make but rather leaves for compiler writer’s decision.

2.1. Why C?

Because it is the most common denominator. Any language be it C++, Java, Perl, Python etc have got bindings in C. Whenever you are willing to extend these languages you need to know C. Also, if by any chance you are going towards system programming you need to C. C is everywhere. There is no escape from learning it; it does not matter whether you like it or not.

There is one more important point worth noting here is that C++ is far more complex compared to C. Also, the runtime calculations of C++ make it slightly slower than C. The library of C is much smaller than C. Therefore wherever there is a memory constraint or extreme high performance is needed C is preferred. The simple syntax of C means its code is very verbose for programmer in the sense that if you read code then you can very easily see what instructions the code is going to translate into.

It is very easy to write interfaces to other languages because other languages expose their objects in terms of C structures not the other way around. The reason for this is huge popularity of C and large code base perhaps.

One more important feature is portability. Note that if you want your program to have high degree of portability then you should not use C99 features but rather ANSI C because ANSI C compilers are available on most platforms. Even though Java claims to be portable or other interpreted languages they are limited by the fact that the interpreters or VMs(JVM in case of Java) is not available on all the platforms. Therefore, C is the MOST portable language. :-)

One of the advantages with C is that since it is very old a lot of software has been written using it. GNU/Linux for example uses C for its kernel. GNOME which is one of the desktop environments of GNU/Linux is also written in C. The fact is that since a lot of libraries are available in C thus it makes a lot of work very easy to do in C since the infrastructure or ecosystem is developed and mature. At the same time, since C is taught in many colleges and universities as first course in programming a lot of people know C thus if you are writing free(as in freedom) software then you have a much higher chance of getting support if you write your code in C.

2.2. History

C was formally delivered to this world in 1972 and started by Dennis MacAlistair Ritchie in 1968. What happened was there was a project for development of a text processor and GE-645 was bought by AT&T Bell Labs. At that time Ken Thompson had developed a game called “Space Travel”. Then they had another machine PDP-11, before that they had PDP-7. Now all the time the code for “Space Travel” had to be rewritten and also the Unix had to be ported. So when C was invented it was used to write Unix code in C. And then “Space Travel”. I do not know what was the real motivation the language, the OS or the game. But such is the story. Also, I have not studied much in this area about the exact events. In 1972 C was formally announced. C takes its features from BCPL a language by Martin Richard and B by Ken Thompson. AT&T Bells labs gave Unix and a C compiler to many universities at a normal fees and it grew with leaps and bounds from there and became a ubiquitous language. For many years “The C Programming Language” served as a reference of C. Later it was standardized by ANSI and then by ISO standards.

2.3. Comparison with Other Languages

C is a structured, statically typed, somewhat low-level, high-performance compiled language. It does not support object-oriented programming like most modern programming including C++, Java, Perl, Python, Ruby etc. However, that does not mean you cannot do object-oriented programming in C. It is just that C does not have support at the language level and it is painful to do so. C is low level because it allows you to handle memory contents directly. You have something called void which is raw representation of memory content. C also does not support functional or generic programming but again it is possible to do so with painful hacks. One of the coveted features is C programs deliver very high performance if written correctly as it does not have reunite penalties of virtual functions of OOP (object-oriented programming) languages.

2.4. How to Learn Programming

Programming is exactly like Mathematics. As in Mathematics you need to read theory, understand solved problems and then solve more and more problems by yourself. If you cannot solve, ask your teacher. Similarly, in programming you need to read about language, try examples given, read code written by others and then develop your own code. If you get stuck there are umpteen number of tutorials, mailing lists and groups to help you. I recommend comp.lang.c user group for C programming. Its interface is at http://groups.google.com/group/comp.lang.c/. You should join it and participate there. http://www.stackoverflow.com/ is also a very good forum to ask questions about programming in general.

2.5. What is a Computer Program?

Since this book is written for even beginner please allow me to start from beginning. As the reader may know a computer consists of many components and one of the most or rather most important part is processor often named as CPU (central processing unit). The logic gates in CPUs are formed and instructions like ADD (addition), SUB (subtraction), MUL (multiplication), DIV (division) etc are implemented in hardware of CPU. When we write a program, say C program, the instructions given in our program is translated to a format which operating system can understand. In our case that is GNU/Linux this executable format is known as ELF (executable and linkable format). For the curious you can read http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Executable_and_Linkable_Format and there are lots of specification for different CPUs. Then operating system interprets these files and ask CPU to perform action. So a C program does not directly talk to processor but it rather talks to operating system or rather kernel of the operating system and in turn the operating system or kernel provides services to your program.

2.6. Attributes of a Program

You may be wondering so that is very easy. You just learn programming in C and start hacking on keyboard to produce software. Well, that is partially true but a program has several desired attributes which you must consider. Any program cannot be considered a good program unless it satisfies following requirements or possess following attributes (Note: These are generic attributes and not specific to C programming language):

1. Correctness: Correctness means that a program satisfies its requirement specification. It means that for a specified input the specified output should be produced. This particular attribute is of most significance. It does not matter whether other attributes are present or not but this one is a must. If a program behavior is not correct, it is of no use.

2. Efficiency: Efficiency is second to correctness only. Say you are developing a text editor and you take 5 seconds to load a 10KB text file then by no means you can persuade a user to use your text editor. A program/software must be as efficient as possible. Sometimes it clashes with other attributes and also depend on the problem domain that how strict are the requirements.

3. Security: A very highly desirable feature in programs which deal with more than one computer and also for desktop applications. It is very bad if someone can take advantage of buffer overflow, stack overflow, integer overflow etc. in your program and you must guard against these at all times. Note that to provide security you must put extra checks which will go against efficiency.

4. Robustness: Sometimes users will not give correct inputs. For example they may enter a character when an integer is asked for or they can give input beyond range. In such cases you must handle the erroneous input. This is just one example. Sometimes your memory allocation may fail. The rule is program defensively. All such input validations and checks on memory do take a toll on our second attribute but that does not mean that we can neglect it.

5. Maintainability: Even a one line program has to be maintained if it is worth it! Typically, the life of a program far exceeds the development time. In almost all the cases the original programmer is not maintainer. Because of these reasons you must strive for maintainability. You should follow some coding standards like I highly recommend GNU Coding Standards. Clear documentation is one of the prerequisites of maintainability.

6. Extensibility: Let us take our example of text editor and say our editor is complete. Now someone else would like to provide a plugin which will enable syntax highlighting and project management for this editor. So, in order to do so you can choose a plugin-based extensible architecture or you can allow them to extend the editor using scripting languages like Guile, Python, Lua etc.This features allows user to collaborate and make your program better. Remember the rule is the more the merrier here.

7. Portability: It is an elusive and painful goal. Let us say we write our text editor GUI using something like Xlib directly then we will have to port the entire GUI for other non X-based OSes. So we can choose some cross-platform GUI libraries like GTK+, Qt, WxWidgets etc. Even then when system calls come in your software you can do not much but either write wrappers and do conditional compilation.

8. Longevity: This is probably hardest to achieve after portability. With a bit of effort you can definitely achieve aforementioned attributes of program in a fine balance. When I say what I mean is that how long will the life of the program will be before it requires change, which directly implies that how well designed is your program that it does not require modification with changes in other factors which you may not even know at the time of writing the program. It takes certain vision and wisdom to achieve this goal and one which separates graet programmers from good programmers. One such example is TeX by Donald Erwin Knuth or C programming Language. It is not that these program have not changed but the changes are minimal.

2.7. Tools of Trade

At the very least you need a compiler, an editor and a linker. Almost all GNU/Linux systems install GCC by default which is the compiler we are going to use and it includes linker ld. There are several editors you can use from but I am going to use Emacs along with Sr-speedbar and Flymake plugins. Other options include VI, Kate, Gedit, Kwrite etc. A debugger is optional but if you want to go far with C programming then you must learn to use a debugger. GDB is a very nice debugger and we are going to use it for debugging in Emacs itself. Emacs has native support for debugging with GDB. For dynamic memory checking, heap corruption, cache corruption etc I am going to show you how to use valgrind. Again, valgrind is optional but it becomes mandatory if you want to work on large projects. For profiling gprof and for code coverage gcov. Note that you can use gcc for compiling programs. Most of the GNU/Linux systems come with gcc. For compiling programs I will use GNU Make though in the beginning I will show you how to compile on command line. Again, profiling, code coverage and make are optional to learn C but practically they are necessary to develop any software worth its value.

You may choose another editor or IDE but I will recommend against IDEs for beginners as they hide much of compilation process from the users. The reason of choosing Emacs as an editor is its power. Emacs is hard to learn but it is very powerful and I implore you to spend some time and learn it. Learning Emacs will pay rich dividends in future to you. Emacs comes with its manual which you can read in menu for Help. For using more tools like Sr-speedbar and Flymake mode you can read more on Emacs Wiki. A lot of extensions are available at ELPA, MELPA <https://melpa.org> and Marmalade Elisp(Emacs Lisp) repositories. In fact it is wrong to say that Emacs is an editor. You can read your email, play games, have a shell, read news, do remote editing, browse web and many other things. It is so powerful that some people set it to run when they login and they never get out of it. In fact Emacs is a Lisp engine thus it is an interpreter which you can make to do anything by writing a bit of code.

2.8. Bits and Bytes

The smallest unit a computer can understand is called a bit. The values for a bit is either 0 or 1. Consider a voltage. It can be 0V or 1.5V or whatever the core CPU voltage is. CPU does not understand numbers but voltages :-). You cannot expect an electronics hardware to understand the same semantics of 0 and 1 which we know. 0 and 1 are abstraction of CPUs voltages in programming. Four bits form a nibble and eight form a byte. A byte is the area of memory which can be addressed by CPU and its content manipulated. To address a memory a CPU has say 4 or 8 or up to 256 pins. For example, in a common 32-bit CPU there are 32 pins whose voltages may represent 0 or 1. Consider all pins are low i.e. 0 then the memory location pointed to is 00000000000000000000000000000000 i.e. a 8 bit memory at location 0 can be accessed. This memory is also called primary memory or RAM (Random Access Memory). So computing this way we can see that a 32-bit processor can access \(2^{32}\) bytes or 4,294,967,296 bytes. You can arrive at this number by 4*1024*1024*1024. This is equivalent to 4GB of RAM. However, modern Intel processors have 36 physical pins to address up to 64GB of memory. That does not mean that all 64-bit CPUs have 64 pins for addressing memory as 16 Exabytes(approximately \(16*10^{18}\)) is really, really huge amount of memory which is not needed by any single monolithic system practically and will be very expensive, thus it is not practical.

Since a byte has 8 bits, its value may range from 0 to 255 as \(2^8\) is 256. For unsigned data type this will be the range. When all bits are 0 value is zero and when all are high it is 255. Computers use two’s complement form to represent binary number. So if these 8-bits represent signed number the range will be from \(-2^8\) to \(2^8-1\) that is -128 to 127. As you will see later at lowest levels C allows you to access even one bit using something called bit-fields. If you read specification it will signify the range of one 8-bit byte as -127 to 127 because it also takes in to consideration of 1’s complement computers in which positive and negative zeroes are different.

2.9. Notes on Number System

A number system is a system which determines the rules and symbols for numbers on how we are going to use them. A number system consists of symbols for representing numbers and a dot for representing fractional numbers. Minus sign is used to represent negative numbers. A number system ranges from \(-\infty\) to \(+\infty\) . It is best represented by a straight line given below:

\draw (0, 0) -- (6, 0);
\draw (0, -.2) -- (0, .2);
\draw (6, -.2) -- (6, .2);
\draw (3, -.2) -- (3, .2);
\draw (0, 0.4) node{$-\infty$};
\draw (6, 0.4) node{$+\infty$};
\draw (3, 0.4) node{$0$};

Number axis.

Each point on this axis represents a number. It may be integer or fractional number. An integer is a whole number like -1, -2, 0, 5, 7 etc. Floating-point numbers have fractional parts like 1.234. The important fact to note is that between any two points there exists infinite numbers. In other words between any two numbers there exists infinite numbers. For example, between 1.2 and 1.3 there are 1.21, 1.22, 1.23…, 1.29. Moreover between 1.21 and 1.22 there are 1.211, 1.212, 1.213 and so on. It enables us to represent a point on this axis. The numbers I have written are supposedly in decimal number system. Base of decimal number system is 10. Why because it consists of 10 distinct symbols 0 through 9. Similarly we can have any other number system. Popular number systems in computers are binary, octal and hexadecimal not to mention decimal of course.

A number in a generic number system is given below:

\[\begin{split}(.. c_mb^{m-1} + c_{m-1}b^{m-2}+ ... + c_2b^1 + c1_b^0 + c_{-1}b^{-1} + ... + c_{-m}b^{-m} ) \\ = (... c_mc_{m-1}...c_2c_1.c_{-1}...c_{-m})_b\end{split}\]

All the terms with \(c\) are called digits. The leftmost or leading digit is called most significant digit and the rightmost or trailing digit is called least significant digit. The . is called a point which separates the integral part which is towards its left from the fractional part which is towards its right. \(b\) is known as radix or base of the number system. Note that all digits will be between \(0\) to \(b-1\). So in our decimal system \(b\) is 10 therefore we have digits from 0 to 9. In binary number system it is 2 therefore digits permitted are 0 and 1.

2.9.1. Binary Number System

As the name suggests binary number system has base of 2. Therefore it has only two symbols. 0 and 1. This is the most popular system for computers because TTL NAND and NOR gates which are the most basic logic gates using which other gates are implemented in processor has only two voltage output levels because of their operation in cut-off and saturation zones. These terms are better understood with the help of a book on electronics which is out of scope of this book. All binary numbers consist of 0 and 1. So the count is like 0, 1, 10, 11, 100, 101, 110, 111, 1000 and so on.

2.9.1.1. Conversion of Unsigned Decimals and Binaries

Consider a decimal number. Let us say 53 then how would be convert it to binary. The technique is that of division. Please examine following carefully:

2 | 53 | 1
----------
2 | 26 | 0
----------
2 | 13 | 1
----------
2 | 6  | 0
----------
2 | 3  | 1
----------
  | 1  |

So the binary is \(110101_2\). First we divide 53 by 2 and write the remainder. Then quotient is 26. We repeat the process for 26 therefore remainder is 0 and quotient is 13. This we go on repeating till we have 1 as quotient. Note that all the remainders will be 0 or 1 because divisor is 2. Similarly, final quotient is always 1. Now we take final quotient and start writing remainders from top to bottom.

To convert binary to decimal let us examine following:

\[1*2^5 +1*2^4 +0*2^3 +1*2^2 +0*2^1 +1*2^0 =53_{10}\]

The power is to 2 because 2 is the base of source. It starts from 0 for unit’s position and increases to 1 and 2 for ten’s and hundred’s position and so on. 1’s and 0’s are the values of that place. If you note carefully powers of 2 grow like 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 and so on. Any number can be written by using these powers at most one time. For example consider 100. I know it is less than 128 so I will use 64. Then 36 remains. So I will use 32 and then 4. This means 100=64+32+4 which means power 6, 5 and 2 have been used. Therefore, I can quickly write down number as \(1100100_2\).

Fractional numbers are slightly more complicated. Let us consider \(1.1_2\) . In decimal it will be \(1+frac{1}{2}\). This is 1.5 in decimal. Note that when you convert a fractional part of binary to decimal denominator will always be power of 2. For that matter when you convert from any base to decimal denominator will be powers of that base. Important: Therefore, when you convert from decimal to some base n then denominator of that decimal number can have only those prime factors which are available in the set of prime factors of \(n\).

Let us say we have a fractional number in decimal .59 then to convert it to decimal we multiply it with 2 which yields 1.018 which is greater than 1 so our equivalent binary number is .1. Now we subtract 1 from 1.18 to get .18 which is less than 1 so we multiply it with 2 again to get .36. Now since this is less than 1 our equivalent binary number is .10. Repeating the process we get .72 and .100 then 1.44 and .1001. We put 1 in binary part because decimal part has become greater than 1. Now again we subtract 1 from decimal part to get .44 and repeat the process.

Operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division are similar in all number systems.

2.9.2. 2’s Complement and 1’s Complement

2’s complement and 1’s complement are used to convert binary numbers to decimal values. In 1’s complement the number is obtained by inverting bits i.e. making 0 bit to 1 bit and 1 bit to 0 bit of the binary number in question.

Consider the following table which contains some numbers for 1’s complement of some 8-bit numbers.

The 2’s complement of an \(N\)-bit number is defined as the complement with respect to \(2^N\); i.e. it is the result of subtracting the number from \(2^N\), which in binary is one followed by \(N\) zeroes. This is also equivalent to taking the 1’s complement and then adding one, since the sum of a number and its 1’s complement is all 1 bits.

Bits Unsigned Value 1’s Complement
0111 1111 127 127
0111 1110 126 126
0000 0010 2 2
0000 0001 1 1
0000 0000 0 0
1111 1111 255 -0
1111 1110 254 -1
1000 0010 130 -125
1000 0001 129 -126
1000 0000 128 -127

For signed numbers MSB(most significant bit) decides sign in both 1’s complement as well as 2’s complement. 1’s complement has two zeroes. Positive and negative. As you see in table that 1111 1111 is -0 because MSB is 1 so it is a negative number and then if you invert all remaining bits then it turns out to be 0. In a 1’s complement system negative numbers are represented by the arithmetic negative of the value. An $N$-bit 1’s complement number system can represent integers in the range \(-2^{N-1} - 1\) to \(-2^{N-1} - 1\).

Now it is easy to do addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and other arithmetic operations. Subtraction for 1’s complement is a bit different. Consider the following:

+ 0000 0110       6
- 0001 0011      19
===========   ====
1 1111 0011     -12    -An end-around borrow is produced, and the sign bit
                      of the intermediate result is 1.
- 0000 0001       1    -Subtract the end-around borrow from the result.
===========   ====
  1111 0010     -13    -The correct result (6 - 19 = -13)

Borrows are propagated to the left. If the borrow extends past the end then it is said to have “wrapped around”“, a condition called an “end-around borrow”. When this occurs, the bit must be subtracted from the right-most bit or least significant bit(LSB). This does not occur in 2’s complement arithmetic.

As you see in table and also you can verify the value becomes negative if its 1’s complement is computed. However, 2’s complement is used on most of computers because of two zeroes in 1’s complement, borrowing being complicated etc.

Bits Unsigned Value 2’s Complement
0111 1111 127 127
0111 1110 126 126
0000 0010 2 2
0000 0001 1 1
0000 0000 0 0
1111 1111 255 -1
1111 1110 254 -2
1000 0010 130 -126
1000 0001 129 -127
1000 0000 128 -128

Clearly, since \(N\)-bit 1’s complement can represent numbers in range \(-2^{N-1}-1\) to \(2^{N-1} + 1\) 2’s complement of \(N\)-bit can represent \(-2^{N-1}\) to \(2^{N-1} - 1\) as it does not have negative 0 i.e. its range is more by 1 number.

The 2’ complement system has the advantage that operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication are same as unsigned binary numbers (as long as the inputs are represented in the same number of bits and any overflow beyond those bits is discarded from the result). This property makes the system both simpler to implement and capable of easily handling higher precision arithmetic. Also, as mentioned above zero has only a single representation, avoiding the subtleties associated with negative zero, which exists in 1’s complement systems.

The value \(v\) of an \(N\)-bit integer \(b_{N-1} b_{N-2} dots b_0\) is given by the following formula:

\[v=-b_{N-1} 2^{N-1} + \sum_{i=0}^{N-2} b_i 2^i\]

I will leave it up to you, the reader, to perform basic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, division etc.

2.10. Compiling and Executing

To compile and execute a program create a new file, edit it and save it. The extension of file should be *.c. For example, myprogram.c. After that you can give this command at terminal. Here is the corrected code for you.

#include <stdio.h>

int main()
{
  return 0;
}

Execute the following command on your command prompt:

$gcc nothing.c -o nothing

Then you will see a file named my program is created by compiler if no errors were there in your program. In case of errors, like we had in one shown to you they have to be resolved first. Suppose nothing is produced then you can execute it like

$./nothing

Note that in both the commands $ is not part of command but it is prompt. For you it may be % or # or something fancier (depends on the imagination of your system administrator). To execute this command your working directory must be same as the directory your program is in. Also, note that on some systems TAB auto completes filename so do not do the following by accident:

DO NOT DO FOLLOWING

$gcc nothing.c -o nothing.c

This will overwrite your nothing.c by nothing. Let us see how to compile this program using a Makefile. In case you are curious about knowing eveything about Makefiles at this point of time then you can find its very fine manual at GNU Make Manual. Edit your Makefile like this:

#sample Makefile
check-syntax:
    gcc -o nul -Wall -S $(CHK_SOURCES)

nothing:nothing.c
    gcc nothing.c -o nothing

Now from do this from menu. Tools->compile and as the command issue make -k test. Your code will be compiled. Makefiles are better than executing commands however you must know underlying commands. You can also use something like CMake or Scons but I think that should be part of a book covering build systems.